Transformer – Definition, Working principle, Diagram, Types


Continuous Electro-mechanical energy conversion takes place in an Electrical Machine. The transformer is not an Electrical Machine. It is a static device, that does not convert electrical energy to mechanical energy and vice versa. In Short, Transformer is a thing in an electrical component that Steps up or down the voltage. The Step-up transformer increases … Read more

Lap and Wave winding with Equalizer ring & Dummy coil


A rotating machine has an essential part known as Armature winding. Generally, this is responsible for making a rotating magnetic field in a machine. As a result, it provides back emf to the supply. This armature winding is classified into two types. One is Lap winding and another is Wave winding. These have their special … Read more

Open and Short Circuit test of Transformer

Open and short circuit test are carried out to determine the equivalent circuit parameters of a single phase or 3 phase Transformer. Open circuit or the OC test of a transformer is used to measure “CORE losses“. Whereas Short circuit or SC test of a transformer is used to measure the “Full load copper loss“. … Read more

Geometrical Neutral Axis (GNA) and Magnetic Neutral Axis (MNA)


What are the Geometrical neutral axis (GNA) and Magnetic neutral axis (MNA)? The Geometrical Neutral axis (GNA) bisects the angle between the two poles of a machine. Whereas the Magnetic Neutral axis (MNA) is the perpendicular axis on the magnetic flux line. Also machine has a “Direct (D) axis” and “Quadrature (Q) axis”. What is … Read more