## DC machine Construction: Yoke, Poles, Commutator, Brushes, Bearings

Generally, a rotating machine has two parts in common one is a stationary part and another is a rotating part. The stationary part of the DC (Direct Current) machine contains several components of the machine such as field winding, pole shoes, bearings, etc. Whereas the rotating part of the DC machine has armature winding, armature … Read more

## What is Voltage Divider or Division Rule? with Formula and Example

Generally, we need the Voltage division Formula where there is a Series network of the different elements like Resistor, Capacitor, or Inductor. We can use the Voltage Divider/Division Rule to find the voltage across each element of the circuit easily with examples. Then there is no need to apply KCL (Kirchhoff’s current law) and KVL … Read more

## Armature winding: Coil span, pole pitch & commutator pitch

Firstly we need to know about basic things like Coil, Pole Pitch, commutator pitch, and Span for a better understanding of these words in the DC machine. What is the coil? The coil of the DC machine uses copper (mainly enameled copper). Some of the machines have a single turn and some have Multi turns … Read more

## Transformer – Definition, Working principle, Diagram, Types

Continuous Electro-mechanical energy conversion takes place in an Electrical Machine. The transformer is not an Electrical Machine. It is a static device, that does not convert electrical energy to mechanical energy and vice versa. In Short, Transformer is a thing in an electrical component that Steps up or down the voltage. The Step-up transformer increases … Read more

## Lap and Wave winding with Equalizer ring & Dummy coil

A rotating machine has an essential part known as Armature winding. Generally, this is responsible for making a rotating magnetic field in a machine. As a result, it provides back emf to the supply. This armature winding is classified into two types. One is Lap winding and another is Wave winding. These have their special … Read more

## Open and Short Circuit test of Transformer

Open and short circuit test are carried out to determine the equivalent circuit parameters of a single phase or 3 phase Transformer. Open circuit or the OC test of a transformer is used to measure “CORE losses“. Whereas Short circuit or SC test of a transformer is used to measure the “Full load copper loss“. … Read more

## Geometrical Neutral Axis (GNA) and Magnetic Neutral Axis (MNA)

What are the Geometrical neutral axis (GNA) and Magnetic neutral axis (MNA)? The Geometrical Neutral axis (GNA) bisects the angle between the two poles of a machine. Whereas the Magnetic Neutral axis (MNA) is the perpendicular axis on the magnetic flux line. Also machine has a “Direct (D) axis” and “Quadrature (Q) axis”. What is … Read more